Toronto ranks as the 4th most sustainable city in North America, according to a new global index of 100 cities around the world.
The Arcadis Sustainable Cities Index ranks cities on three pillars of sustainability – People, Planet and Profit, or social, environmental and economic sustainability.
Toronto was found to be the 33rd most sustainable city in the world, ahead of North American cities such as Boston, San Francisco, and LA, but behind both Montreal and Vancouver.
The study looked at a wide range of issues, including health, education, work-life balance, energy consumption, green space, recycling rates, transport infrastructure, and tourism.
Overall, the most sustainable city in the world was found to be Zurich, followed by Singapore, Stockholm, Vienna and London.
The city ranked least sustainable was Kolkata, with Cairo, Nairobi, New Delhi, and Manila following close behind.
Source: Arcadis Sustainable Cities Index